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高中英语语法教案名词

2021-03-16 来源:未知   作者:未知
高中英语语法教案名词(一)概述名词是表示人、地方、事物或抽象概念名称的词,可以说名词是万物之名称。它们可以是:人的名字liming,tom地方名称china,london职业称呼teacher,doctor物品名称pencil,dictionary行为名称study,invention抽象概念history,grammar(二)普通名词和专有名词1.普通名词凡不属于特定的人名、地名、事物名称或概念名称的名词,都属于普通名词。这类名词在所有的名词中占绝大多数。普通名词大致有以下四种类型:1)个体名词个体名词指作为个体而存在的人或物。可以指具体的人或物,例如:hehastwoaunts.他有两个姑姑。mostclassroomshavecomputers.多数教室里都有电脑。也可指抽象东西,例如:we’velivedherefortwentyyears.我们在这里住了二十年了。ihadadreamlastnight我昨晚做了一个梦。个体名词有复数形式,如:weeks,problems;单数形式可以和a/an连用,如:aweek,aproblem,anoldman.2)集体名词集体名词表示由个体组成的集体,下面是一些常见的集体名词:family(家,家庭)army(军队)company(公司;全体船员)enemy(敌人)government(政府)group(小组,团体)public(公众)team(队;组)police(警方)作单数看待作复数看待hisfamilyisn'tlarge.他家人不多。thegovernmentisplanningtobuildadamhere.政府打算在这里建一座水坝。thepublicwasunlikelytosupportit.公众支持它的可能性不大。hisfamilyareallmusiclovers.他家的人都喜欢音乐。thegovernmentarediscussingtheplan.政府在讨论这个计划。thepublicweredeceivedbythenewspaper.公众受到报纸的蒙骗。集体名词有时作单数看待,有时作复数看待。一般说来,视为整体时作单数看待,想到它的成员时作复数看待:
例如:有的集体名词通常用作单数,例如:ourcompanyissendinghimtoworkinberlin.我们公司将派他去柏林工作。有的集体名词多作复数看待。例如:thepolicearelookingforhim.警察正在找他。3)物质名词物质名词指无法分为个体的东西,我们学过的常见的物质名词有:beer,cloth,coal,coffee,coke,cotton,ice,ink,jam,juice,meat,medicine,metal,milk,oilpaper,rain,salad,salt,sand,snow,soup,steel,sugar,tea,water,wine,wood,wool等。一般说来,物质名词是不可数折,因而没有复数形式。但有一些特殊情况:a.有些物质名词可用作可数名词,表示“一份”,“一杯”:treebeers,please.请来三杯啤酒。achocolateice-creamforme.给我一份巧克力冰淇淋。b.有此物质名词可作可数名词,表示“一种”:itwasaspecialteawhichtastedoforangeblossoms.这是一种特别的茶,有桔子花叶。itwasadeliciouswine.那是一种美味的红酒。c.个别物质名词可用于复数形式或有特殊意义:81页,当前第1页123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081itwasnowthetimeofthespringrains.现在是春天雨季的时候。herearethesnowsoflastyear.这是去看的积雪。d.抽象名词抽象名词主要表示一些抽象概念,一般不可数,因此没有复形,前面也一般不加不定冠词a/an。常见的抽象名词有:age,anger,beauty,childhood,death,duty,fear,fun,happiness,health,help,history,industry,joy,labour,love,luck,music,nature,peace,pleasure,power,safety,silence,sleep,time,training,travel,trust,truth,waste,weather,work,worth,youth等。
在多数情况下,这种名词常用于单数形式,不加任何冠词。例如:safetyfirst!安全第一!it’swonderfulweather.天气好极了。但有时也加定冠词the,或不定冠词a/an.例如:ishallneverforgetthebeautyofthatlake.我永远不会忘记那个湖的美丽。there’sabeautyinsimplicity.朴实之中有一种美。2.专有名词专有名词主要指人名、地名及某些类人和事物专有的名称。例如:1)人名:mary,mrsgreen,zhanghua2)地名:beijing,westlake3)某类人的名称:americans,russians4)某些抽象事物的名称:english,chinese5)月份、周日及节日名称:may,saturday,easter6)书名、电影及诗歌的名称:conewiththewind7)对家人等的称呼:mum,dad,uncletom专有名词的第一个字母要大写。(三)可数名词和不可数名词名词按其所表示的事物的性质分为可数与不可数名词两类。可数名词有复数形式,不可数名词一般没有复数形式。单数复数acountryaclassasheepatomatocountriesclassessheeptomatoes普通名词中的个体名词和集体名词一般是可数的,所以它们又可称为可数名词。可数名词单数往往要同不定冠词a或an连用,复数则要使用其复数形式。例如: 普通名词中的物质名词和抽象名词及专有名词一般是不可数的,这些名词又可称为不可数名词。不可数名词不能用不定冠词修饰,也不存在复数形式,如ice(冰),water(水),rice(稻子)等。在英语中个别名词既可以作不可数名词,又可以作可数名词。但由于用法不同,它们的意思往往也不大相同,对这些名词要特别注意。
例如作不可数名词作可数名词glass玻璃paper纸张time时间work消息玻璃杯;镜子;眼镜报纸;文件;考卷次数;时代单词;话语一般说来,汉语和英语对某一个名词是否可数的看法基本上是一致的。但也有不少名词在汉语中常被用作可数名词,而在英语中却绝对是不可数名词,对这些名词也要特别注意,发如:fun,work,advice,weather,homework,news,money,information,bread ,hair ),chalk ,furniture等。(四)可数名词复数形式的构成可数名词的复数形式通常是在单数形式后加-s或-es,现将其复数的一般构成方法及读音列表如下:情况构成方法例词读音一般情况在词尾加-sdesk→desksmap→maps-s在请辅音后发[s]音day→daysgirl→girls-s在元音私浊畏音后发[z]以s,x,ch,sh结尾的词81页,当前第2页123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081在词尾加-esbus→busesbox→boxeswatch→watchesfish→fisheses发[iz]音以辅音字母加y结尾的词变y为i再加-esfamily→familiesfactory→factoriesparty→parties-ies发[iz]音以元音字母y结尾的词在词尾加-sday→daysboy→boyskey→keys-s发[z]音以f或fe结尾的词变f或fe为v再加-esknife→kniveslife→liveswife→wiveshalf→halves-ves发[vz]音以辅音字母加o结尾的词在词尾加-espotato→potatoestomato→tomatoeshero→heroes-es发[z]音以元音字母加o结尾的词在词尾加-sradio→radioszoo→zoos-s发[z]音少数以辅音字母加o结尾的名词变为复数时只加-s。如:photo→photos,piano→pianos等。
有些以f结尾的名词变为复数时也只加-s。如:handkerchief→handkerchiefs,roof→roofs等。英语中还有不少名词的复数形式是不规则的,必须把它们牢记在心。如:man→men,woman→women,frenchman→frenchmen,child→children,tooth→teeth,foot→feet,goose→geese,mouse→mice,sheep→sheep,deer→deer,fish→fish等。(五)名词的所有格在英语中,有些名词的词尾可以加上’s,用来表示所有关系,这种结构称为名词的所有格。1.名词所有格的构成名词所有格的构成一般有以下三种情况:1)如果名词是单数,只在词尾加’s。例如:theboy’sschoolbag这男孩的书包theworker’sshoes这个二人的鞋2)复数名词如果以s结尾,只加’(在s的右上角)即可如:theteachers’office老师们的办公室thestudents’classroom学生们的教室3)复数名词如果不以s结尾,则在词尾加’s如:women’sday妇女节thepeople’spark人民公园2.名词所有格的用法名词的所有格主要有以下五种用法:1)表示人成动物与其他的人、动物或事物的所有关系。例如:heismary’syoungerbrother.他是玛丽的弟弟。theyarereadingleifeng’sdiaries.他们在读雷锋的日记。2)表示时间、距离、国家、城市等名词与其他事物的所有关系。例如:ourschoolishalfanhour’swalkfromhere.我们学校离这儿步行有半小时的距离。beijingischina’scapital.北京是中国的首都。3)表示无生命东西的名词的所有关系,一般使用与of构成的短语结构。例如:thefrontdoorofthehousewaspaintedred.那屋子的前门被漆成了红色。thereisamapoftheworldonthefrontwallofourclassroom.
我们教室前面的墙上有一幅世界地图。4)名词所有格后面跟地点,往往要将地点名词省略。例如:mysisteroftengoestomyuncle’s.我的妹妹经常到我叔叔家去。youlookill.you’dbettergotothedoctor’s.你脸色不好,最好去看看病。5)被名词所有格所修饰的词,如果前面已经提出到过,一般可以省略。例如:iamusingmydictionary.youcanusetom’s.我们字典我正在用,你可以用汤姆的。ourbedroomismuchlargerthanjohnanddick’s.我们的寝室比约翰私迪克的大得多,(六)可数名词和不可数名词的数量表达81页,当前第3页1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647484950515253545556575859606162636465666768697071727374757677787980811.两种名词都有能修饰的数量词有:some,any,plentyof,alotof,lotsof等。例如:pleasegivemesomepaper.请给我一些纸。idon’twanttoborrowanymagazines.我不想借什么杂志。2.用来修饰可数名词的数量词有:many,several.hundredsof,anumberof,apairof,afew,few等。例如:youhavemadequiteafewspellingmistakesinyourcomposition.你的俄文中有很多拼写错误。severaldayslater,agroupofstudentswenttohelptheoldman.几天以后,一群学生去帮助了那位老人。3.用来修饰不可数名词的数量词有:much,agreatdealof,abitof,adropof,apieceof,quitealittle,little,等。例如:iwantapieceofredchalk.我想要一支红粉笔。pleasegiveherabitofbread.请给她一点面包。(七)名词的用法1.作主语例如:theradiosaysthatitmaystopraininglater.广播说一会儿雨可能会停。2.作表语例如:
class3werethewinners.三班获胜了。3.作宾语例如:itoldhimastory.我给他讲了个故事。4.作宾语补足语例如:henamedherjenny.他给她取名詹妮。5.作定语例如:wearediscussingthepopulationproblem.我们正在讨论人口问题。6.作状语例如:hesatherealongtime.他坐在这儿很久了。7.与介词组成词组例如:iamworkinghardonmychinese.我正在努力学习汉语。8.作介词宾语例如:givethemoneytoyoursister.把钱给你姐姐。
三、随堂监测a组i.写出下列名词的复数形式:1.house_________        2.village___________3.map__________4.orange_________       5.bag___________    6.exercise___________7.brush__________       8.family___________ 9.bus___________10.city__________      11.box___________   12.baby__________13.class__________     14.factory_________ 15.glass__________16.dictionary__________17.watch_________   18.woman_________19.match__________     20.man_________     21.wish__________22.german__________    23.tomato_________  24.policeman___________25.kilo__________      26.human_________   27.potato___________28.chinese__________   29.shelf__________  30.japanese__________31.leaf___________     32.american__________33.life___________34.tooth__________     35.wife___________  36.foot___________81页,当前第4页12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808137.knife__________     38.sheep__________  39.half___________40.child__________ii.将下列词组译成英语:1、一群孩子                   2、两箱子苹果3、三篮子蔬菜                 4、九块面包5、十杯牛奶                   6、五块肉7、多种植物                   8、一副眼镜9、两块冰                    10、三张纸11、四瓶橘汁                 12、五杯茶13、六碗米饭                 14、七袋米15、八块木头                 16、九块金属iii.写出下列各词的名词形式:1.work_________    2.teach_________   3.sing________     4.ill___________5.fight___________ 6.invent________   7.wait________     8.woolen__________9.win____________ 10.thankful________11.foreign_________12.cloudy________13.run__________  14.dirty__________ 15.visit_________  16.funny__________17.wooden________ 18.medical________ 19.operate________ 20.hot__________21.invite__________22.worried________ 23.build__________ 24.please________25.help_________  26.safe_________   27.die_________    28.dangerous_______29.draw________   30.noisy________
四、随堂监测b组ⅳ.选择填空:1.iwanttobuy________.a.twobottlesofink        b.twobottleofink       c.twobottleofinks       d.twobottlesofinks2.theydon’thavetodo_______today.a.muchhomework         b.manyhomeworks      c.manyhomework        d.muchhomeworks81页,当前第5页1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647484950515253545556575859606162636465666768697071727374757677787980813.the______ofmachinemadeusfeelsick.a.voice                  b.noise                 c.sound                 d.noises4.theblouseismadeof________.a.awool                 b.thesewood            c.wools                 d.wool5.therearethree______andseven______inthepicture.a.cows,sheeps             b.cows,sheep           c.cow,sheep             d.cow,sheeps6.june1is_______.a.children’sday             b.children’sday         c.children’sday         d.children’sday7.______roomisnexttotheirparents’.a.kate’sandjoan’s          b.kate’sandjoan        c.kateandjoan’s         d.kateandjoan8.missgreenisafriendof_______.a.mary’smother’s           b.mary’smother         c.marymother’s         d.mother’sofmary9.tomis______.hewillcometoseeme.a.myafriend              b.afriend               c.minefriend            d.afriendofmine10.sheep_______whiteandmilk_______alsowhite.a.is,are                  b.are,is                 c.is,is                 d.are,are81页,当前第6页12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808111.i’dliketohaveaglassofmilkand_______.a.twobreads                                       b.twopiecesofbreadsc.twopiecesofbread                                d.twopieceofbread12.it’salong______toparis.it’stwothousandkilometers.a.street                   b.road                  c.way                  d.end13.many______aresingingoverthere.a.woman                 b.women                c.girl                   d.child14.hebought_______.a.twopairsofshoes                                  b.twopairofshoesc.twopairsofshoe                                   d.twopairofshoe15.mr.whitehasthree_______.a.child                  b.children                 c.childs                d.childrens16.beijingisoneofthebiggest_______intheworld.a.citys                  b.city                     c.cityes                d.cities81页,当前第7页123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081
17.---where’smr.white?---he’sin_______.a.theroom202              b.room202                c.theroom202         d.room20218.shops,hospitalsandschoolsareall_______.a.places                    b.homes                   c.rooms               d.buildings19.everymorningmr.smithtakesa_______tohisoffice.a.20minutes’walks       b.20minute’swalk           c.20-minuteswalk       d.20-minutewalk20.---arethese______?---no,theyaren’t.they’re_______.a.sheep,cows               b.sheep,cow                c.sheeps,cow           d.sheeps,cows21.therearemany______inthefridge.a.fish                      b.fruit                     c.eggs                 d.bread22.---whoseroomisthis?---it’s_______.a.liming                   b.liming’s                c.limings             d.limings’23.hereare______foryou,sue.a.potatos                   b.somepotatoes              c.threetomatos         d.sometomato81页,当前第8页12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808124.herearesomebirthdaycardswithourbest______forher.a.wish                     b.hope                      c.wishes              d.hopes25.ialwaysgotothat______tobuyfoodonsunday.a.shop                     b.park                      c.zoo                 d.garden26.what’sthechinesefor“prc”?a.中国人民解放军          b.中华人民共和国            c.联合国             d.中国共产党27.samgaveannsome_______tolookafterpollywhilehewasaway.a.picture-books              b.inventions                  c.instructions          d.messages28.---whichofthefollowinganimalslivesonlyinchina?---the________.a.monkey                  b.elephant                    c.panda               d.cat29.______roomisonthe5thfloor.a.lucyandlily             b.lucyandlily’s              c.lucy’sandlily        d.lucy’sandlily’s30.thethirdmonthoftheyearis_______.a.march                   b.january                     c.february             d.april81页,当前第9页12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808131.mum,i’mquitethirsty.pleasegiveme________.a.twoorange                                              b.twobottleoforangesc.twobottlesoforange                                      d.twobottlesoforanges32.howwonderful!the______ismadeof_______.a.house,glass               b.house,glasses                c.houses,glass         d.houses,glasses33.imetsome______intheparkandtalkedwiththemtheotherday.a.janpaneses               b.american                    c.chineses              d.english34._______isthebesttimeforplantingtrees.a.summer                 b.winter                      c.spring                d.autumn35.tomwasbadlyhurtinthematch.theycarriedhimtothe______asquicklyaspossible.a.bank                    b.postoffice                   c.shop                  d.hospital36.therearetwo______intheroom.a.shelf                    b.shelfs                       c.shelfes                d.shelves81页,当前第10页123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081
37.thereareseven______inaweek.a.years                    b.months                      c.days                 d.minutes38.myfatherisa______.heworksinahospital.a.teacher                   b.doctor                      c.farmer                d.writer39.it’sverycoldtoday.whydon’tyouputonyour______?a.watch                    b.shirt                        c.sweater               d.glasses40.---excuseme,areyou______?---yes,i’mfrom________.a.japan,japanese            b.china,chinese               c.england,english      d.american,americav.各地中考题选编:1.---whereistom?---he’slefta______sayingthathehassomethingimportanttodo.a.excuse                b.message                    c.exercise                d.news2.thereisno______inthebussowehavetowaitforanotherbus.a.room                 b.aroom                     c.rooms                  d.seats81页,当前第11页123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081
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